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Honey bee -

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More on their awesome sense of time, communication of distance and direction in " The Awesome Honeybee Dance ". During winter, honey bees feed on the honey they collected during the warmer months.

They form a tight cluster in their hive to keep the queen and themselves warm. The more I learnt about honey bee facts; honey's great creator -the honey bee itself, its highly organized society, how it acts with such intricate cooperation, and the various bee products, the more I admire and respect this amazing creature.

It is no wonder why sometimes the colony is called a superorganism. Be amazed by how honey bees organize themselves and assume the different roles in the hive.

There is every reason why the bees are known a superorganism! Awesome Roles of Bees in a Hive. As busy as a bee. Are the honeybees really that busy?

Do they rest at all? Busy as a bee. Learn more about the honeybees in: Do bees poop in the honey they make? Are their droppings smelly when all they eat is honey and pollen?

What do honey bees use to make the bee hive? Is it true that the government is using bees to sniff out bombs? They have an infinite capacity to make you look foolish Pam is from Ohio, North America.

Just started keeping bees not too long ago, she was enthusiastic to share about her new found passion - "The more we read about these amazing insects, the more respect I gained for them.

I go out to our hives just to watch them come in from foraging and watch the others take flight to get the nectar and pollen.

An Interview with a Beekeeper. There are two extreme species of bees: As you collect more honey bee facts and know more about honey and its benefits, there are specific terms that you would inevitably come across, such as the following: Know more about terms related to the Honey Bees.

As workers mature, they become responsible for carrying and storing food gathered by foragers. As strong adults, they forage for food until they die.

Honey bees species are found worldwide and can be seen in many different locations, including Europe and the United States. They are most visible in summer and late spring, when new queens leave their old colonies along with thousands of workers to build new nests.

At this time, large groups of bees can be seen swarming together to find a new nesting place. It takes a swarm approximately 24 hours to locate a new nesting site.

While most swarms are harmless, certain species of bees are extremely aggressive and may attack unprovoked.

Because honey bees are found worldwide, their nature and behavior can vary. For instance, while Italian honey bees are usually more docile, German and African honey bees can display extremely defensive behavior.

However, all honey bees can become defensive when provoked and can chase humans or animals hundreds of feet. Pollination For millions of years honey bees have been major pollinators of flowers and, therefore, the plants producing the flowers have relied on the bees.

The goal of the plant is reproduction. Without pollination, many plants would not be able to procreate and eventually would die out.

Humans benefit from this relationship though crop and honey production. Many of the crops people consume are pollinated by honey bees.

Many growers maintain honey bee colonies for this very reason. Without pollination, the plants would not produce fruits and vegetables. Besides pollination, honey bees extract nectar along with the pollen from the flowers.

The nectar is transported back to the nest where, through a process, it is converted into honey. Listen to a recording of Honey Bee noise.

There are two major theories on how honey bee foragers communicate with other workers about a new food source: Although there is evidence to support each claim, the honey bee dance is more widely accepted.

The honey bee dance plays an important role in the survival of the species: The honey bee dance is a way for bees to communicate with one another.

A honey bee that discovers a new food source will tell other honey bees about its location through the honey bee dance.

When a worker bee returns from an abundant food source, she will dance inside their nest in a circle. There are two main types of honey bee dances: Round dance, as the name indicates, is a movement in a circle.

This is used to indicate the food source is less than 50 meters from the nest. Arrhenotokous parthenogenesis , a modified form of parthenogenesis , controls sex differentiation.

The sex allele is polymorphic , and so long as two different variants are present, a female bee results. If both sex alleles are identical, diploid drones are produced.

Honey bees detect and destroy diploid drones after the eggs hatch. Queens typically mate with multiple drones on more than one mating flight.

Once mated, they lay eggs and fertilize them as needed from sperm stored in the spermatheca. Since the number of sex alleles is limited at a regional level, a queen will most likely mate with one or more drones having sex alleles identical with one of the sex alleles in the queen.

The queen, then, typically produces a percentage of diploid drone eggs. Apis florea and Apis andreniformis are small honey bees of southern and southeastern Asia.

They make very small, exposed nests in trees and shrubs. Their stings are often incapable of penetrating human skin, so the hive and swarms can be handled with minimal protection.

They occur largely sympatrically , though they are very distinct evolutionarily and are probably the result of allopatric speciation , their distribution later converging.

One species is recognized in the subgenus Megapis. It usually builds single or a few exposed combs on high tree limbs, on cliffs, and sometimes on buildings.

They can be very fierce. Periodically robbed of their honey by human "honey hunters", colonies are easily capable of stinging a human being to death if provoked.

The genetics of the western honey bee A. The domesticated species are A. The reddish Koschevnikov's bee Apis koschevnikovi from Borneo is clearly a distinct species; it probably derives from the first colonization of the island by cave-nesting honey bees.

Apis cerana , the eastern honey bee proper, is the traditional honey bee of southern and eastern Asia.

It was domesticated as subspecies A. It has not been possible yet to resolve its relationship to the Bornean A. It seems to have originated in eastern tropical Africa and spread from there to Northern Europe and eastwards into Asia to the Tien Shan range.

It is variously called the European, western, or common honey bee in different parts of the world.

Many subspecies have adapted to the local geographic and climatic environments; in addition, hybrid strains, such as the Buckfast bee , have been bred.

Behavior, color, and anatomy can be quite different from one subspecies or even strain to another. It seems to have diverged from its eastern relatives only during the Late Miocene.

This would fit the hypothesis that the ancestral stock of cave-nesting honey bees was separated into the western group of East Africa and the eastern group of tropical Asia by desertification in the Middle East and adjacent regions, which caused declines of food plants and trees that provided nest sites, eventually causing gene flow to cease.

The diversity of A. Apis mellifera is not native to the Americas , so was not present upon the arrival of the European explorers and colonists.

However, other native bee species were kept and traded by indigenous peoples. In , European colonists brought the dark bee A.

Many of the crops that depend on honey bees for pollination have also been imported since colonial times. Escaped swarms known as "wild" bees, but actually feral spread rapidly as far as the Great Plains , usually preceding the colonists.

Honey bees did not naturally cross the Rocky Mountains ; they were transported by the Mormon pioneers to Utah in the late s, and by ship to California in the early s.

Africanized bees known colloquially as "killer bees" are hybrids between European stock and one of the African subspecies A. However, these strains do not overwinter well, so are not often found in the colder, more northern parts of North America.

The original breeding experiment for which the African bees were brought to Brazil in the first place has continued though not as intended.

Novel hybrid strains of domestic and redomesticated Africanized bees combine high resilience to tropical conditions and good yields.

They are popular among beekeepers in Brazil. Tribe Apini Latreille [16]. As in a few other types of eusocial bees, a colony generally contains one queen bee , a fertile female; seasonally up to a few thousand drone bees , or fertile males; [17] and tens of thousands of sterile female worker bees.

Details vary among the different species of honey bees, but common features include:. The worker bees rotate through the cluster from the outside to the inside so that no bee gets too cold.

The colder the weather is outside, the more compact the cluster becomes. During winter, they consume their stored honey to produce body heat.

During the summer, however, this is achieved through fanning and water evaporation from water collected in various fields. Of all the honey bee species, only A.

Species of Apis are generalist floral visitors, and pollinate many species of flowering plants, but because of their "generalized" nature, they do so inefficiently.

Without specialized adaptations for specific flowers, their ability to reach pollen and nectar is often limited.

What's more, their tendency to visit all species in a given area means that the pollen they carry for any one species is often very diluted.

As such, they can provide some pollination to many plants, especially non-native crops, but most native plants have some native pollinator that is far more effective at pollinating that species.

European honey bees are often described as being essential to all human food production, leading to claims that without their pollination, all of humanity would starve, or even die out.

Plantains are sterile and propagated by cuttings, as are cassava. Potatoes , yams , and sweet potatoes are root vegetables propagated by tubers.

Rice , wheat , and corn are all wind-pollinated , because this is true of all grasses. Similarly, no crops originating in the New World depend on the domesticated honey bee Apis mellifera at all, as the insect is invasive, having been brought over with colonists in the last few centuries.

Thomas Jefferson mentioned this in his Notes on the State of Virginia:. Tomatoes , peppers , squash , and all other New World crops evolved with native pollinators like squash bees , bumble bees , other native bees.

The stingless bees mentioned by Jefferson are distant relatives of the honey bees, in the genus Melipona. Honey bees obtain all of their nutritional requirements from a diverse combination of pollen and nectar.

Pollen is the only natural protein source for honey bees. Adult worker honey bees consume 3. Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated concentrations of arginine and lysine are required for brood rearing.

Pyridoxine is the most prevalent B vitamin found in royal jelly and concentrations vary throughout the foraging season with lowest concentrations found in May and highest concentrations found in July and August.

Honey bees lacking dietary pyridoxine were unable to rear brood. Pollen is also a lipid source for honey bees ranging from 0. Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are not considered essential but have shown to significantly improve the number of brood reared.

Nurse bees have the ability to selectively transfer sterols to larvae through brood food. Nectar is collected by foraging worker bees as a source of water and carbohydrates in the form of sucrose.

The dominant monosaccharides in honey bee diets are fructose and glucose but the most common circulating sugar in hemolymph is trehalose which is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules.

Honey bees require water to maintain osmotic homeostasis, prepare liquid brood food, and to cool the hive through evaporation. A colony's water needs can generally be met by nectar foraging as it has high water content.

Occasionally on hot days or when nectar is limited, foragers will collect water from streams or ponds to meet the needs of the hive.

Larval stages of the G. Eggs are laid within the hive, and the larva that hatch tunnel through and destroy the honeycombs that contain bee larva and their honey stores.

The tunnels they create are lined with silk, which entangles and starves emerging bees. Destruction of honeycombs also result in honey leaking and being wasted.

Temperature treatments are possible, but also distorts wax of the honeycombs. Chemical fumigants, particularly CO 2 , are also used. The only domesticated species of honey bee are A.

In Japan, where mellifera is vulnerable to local hornets and disease, the Japanese honey bee a. Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as the crop needs pollinating and allowing the beekeeper to charge for the pollination services they provide, revising the historical role of the self-employed beekeeper, and favoring large-scale commercial operations.

Bees of various types other than honey bees are also domesticated and used for pollination or other means around the world, including Tetragonula iridipennis in India, the blue orchard bee for tree nut and fruit pollination in the United States, and a number of species of Bombus bumblebees for pollination in various regions globally, such as tomatoes , which are not effectively pollinated by honey bees.

Primarily in places where the bee was imported by humans, periodic collapses in honeybee populations have occurred at least since the late 19th century.

This has been dubbed "colony collapse disorder" CCD and was at first unexplained. Honey is the complex substance made when bees ingest nectar, process it, and store the substance into honey combs.

Worker bees of a certain age secrete beeswax from a series of exocrine glands on their abdomens. As with honey, beeswax is gathered by humans for various purposes such as candle making, waterproofing, soap and cosmetics manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, art, furniture polish and more.

Bees collect pollen in their pollen baskets and carry it back to the hive. Worker bees combine pollen, honey and glandular secretions and allow it to ferment in the comb to make bee bread.

The fermentation process releases additional nutrients from the pollen and can produce antibiotics and fatty acids which inhibit spoilage.

In the hive, pollen is used as a protein source necessary during brood-rearing. In certain environments, excess pollen can be collected from the hives of A.

The product is used as a health supplement. It has been used with moderate success as a source of pollen for hand pollination.

Bee brood — the eggs, larvae or pupae of honeybees — is nutritious and seen as a delicacy in countries such as Australia, Indonesia, [45] Mexico, Thailand, and many African countries; it has been consumed since ancient times by the Chinese and Egyptians.

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